During the developments of Biological Agent Biodefense Lists, developing countries should evaluate characteristics of each biological agent and threats faced, existing biodefense capabilities based on its specific regional conditions. The CDCs of developing country should play an important role in this process and cooperate with other related departments and organizations. From the differences in the biological agent category list based on laboratory safety or biodefense, it can been seen that worldwide cooperation and collaboration is lacking, the criteria for inclusion on laboratory biosafety lists are not uniform, the names of some biological agents differ between countries, and the list orders are contradictory.
In the making and revising of biological agent lists, international level discussion is highly important. With regards to biodefense, international cooperation is even more absent. Biodefense is often considered as a sensitive field, and it may be simpler to collaborate well in other scientific areas such as cancer or HIV research. Lessons from such fields could be applied to the area of biodefense collaboration. The development of laboratory biosafety and biodefense capabilities require shared experience to face the pressing questions of modern-day threat.
Cooperation can benefit each other, including further discussions into the making or revision of biological agent category lists. Conceived and designed the experiments: DT. Performed the experiments: DT. Analyzed the data: TZ. Wrote the paper: DT.
The Anthrax Vaccine: A Dilemma for Homeland Security
Manuscript submit and revise: DT. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Biological agents pose a serious threat to human health, economic development, social stability and even national security.
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Background Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi and toxins that cause infection, allergy, toxicity or other hazards to human health, and also pose a serious threat to economic development, social stability and even national security. Results 1. Download: PPT. Table 1. Comparison of biological agent category criterion based on biosafety. Biological agent category list comparison and analysis Comparison of the biological agent category lists revealed that the laboratory biosafety risk groups of most biological agents in NIH, EU and China are consistent, although some inconsistencies were identified Table 2 , Table 3.
Table 2. Bacteria Rickettsia , Chlamydia biosafety and biodefense category list comparison. Table 3.
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Virus biosafety and biodefense category list comparison. Conclusions Classification of biological agents based on laboratory biosafety facilitates enhanced biological agent management and reduces the incidence of laboratory personnel infections and environmental contamination. Biological agent classification based on laboratory biosafety should reduce inconsistencies and contradictions The WHO has published biological agent laboratory biosafety risk group classification criteria, but has not published the category list based on this classification.
Developing countries should also have biological agent biodefense lists to direct the development of biodefense capabilities Bioterrorism and biowarfare poses an enormous threat to humankind. The development and revision of biological agent lists requires international cooperation and collaboration From the differences in the biological agent category list based on laboratory safety or biodefense, it can been seen that worldwide cooperation and collaboration is lacking, the criteria for inclusion on laboratory biosafety lists are not uniform, the names of some biological agents differ between countries, and the list orders are contradictory.
Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: DT. References 1. Science : View Article Google Scholar 2. Accessed 15 October List of human and animal pathogens and toxins for export control. World Health Organization. Accessed 25 December Accessed 15 November Accessed 22 November List of human transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms. Nature : — These efforts have been developed as part of and in parallel with other defences against conventional terrorism.
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The continued attempts by terrorist groups to launch attacks targeted at U. Congressional policymakers will likely be faced with many difficult choices about the priority of maintaining, shrinking, or expanding existing programs versus creating new programs to address identified deficiencies.
This book explores U. Product details Format Hardback pages Dimensions x x Other books in this series. Taliban in Pakistan A. Add to basket. Al Qaeda Stanley Burton. National Infrastructure Frederick H. Bioterrorism Shawn B. Terrorism Adrienne M. Nuclear Terrorism Casey A. Maintaining Homeland Security Alan P. Country Reports on Terrorism harris E.
http://maisonducalvet.com/paginas-para-conocer-gente-mazarrn.php Al Qaeda Alice F. White House. July 21, Retrieved Project BioShield will transform our ability to defend the nation in three essential ways. The Department of Health and Human Services has already taken steps to purchase 75 million doses of an improved anthrax vaccine for the Strategic National Stockpile.
Under Project BioShield, HHS is moving forward with plans to acquire a safer, second generation smallpox vaccine, an antidote to botulinum toxin, and better treatments for exposure to chemical and radiological weapons. Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Oxford Journals. Retrieved June 12, United States Congress. Retrieved 10 April House Republicans. Center for a New American Security. Retrieved 12 June Homeland Preparedness News. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. American Osteopathic Association. Oxford Journal. New England Journal of Medicine. Project BioShield: Purposes and Authorities. Defense Technical Information Center.
Retrieved 15 June United States biological defense program.
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